Star Calendar – June 2016

Star Calendar

June 2016

Star Calendar Planets:

Moon crosses the seasonal colures (meridians of solstices and equinoxes) every month. This month Sun and Moon cross opposite colures on the same day. Just as the length of daylight changes with the seasons – so does the time of Moon-Up change rapidly through the month. For this month, Moon crosses the colures of Summer, Fall, Winter and Spring respectively on the: 4th at 23:32, 12th at 20:00, 20th at 08:26 and 27th at 00:25. The duration of Moon-Up on those days is: 14h35m, 12h29m, 10h4m and 12h26m. The extreme are somewhat subdued because the inclination of the Moon’s path with respect to the celestial equator is currently less than the Sun’s inclination; in a few years’ time the lunar seasons will be more exaggerated than the Sun’s.

Mercury may come into view mid-month – low in the ENE at around 4:30AM. I was not able to do an elaborate setup to view last month’s transit – but twice thought I might have seen it through welder’s glass. A lot of folks took nice photos though.

Venus crosses the backside of the Sun on the 6th. We may expect to see her next in mid-July.

Sun now occupies the sky for a pretty steady 15 hours a day. Note below the subtle differences between earliest/longest/latest dates and times. This year the solstice occurs on the same day as Full Moon – which means that the Sun is making a long summer crossing while the Moon takes a short wintery walk – rising very south-of-east and culminating very low in the sky.

Mars continues to be in our face this month but his rise-time advances more slowly as he approaches the end of his loop on the 30th. He is receding, first slowly, then rapidly, and will be fading noticeably as July approaches. On the 1st of this month he shines at magnitude -2.1 (brighter than Jupiter) and by July at -1.4 (rather like a red Sirius).

Jupiter still dominates the SW as darkness falls – but Mars holds sway in the SE.

Saturn varies less in brightness and follows Mars across the sky – trailing him by about an hour. Saturn is as bright now as the brightest summer star (Vega), but, appearing much lower, tends to draw less notice perhaps.

Star Calendar Days:

1      Sunrise/sunset in Spring Valley at 5:26/20:23 (14h57m daylight)

3      Saturn in opposition (exactly opposite the Sun in our sky)

4      Jupiter is at eastern quadrature (exactly ¼ of the sky from the Sun)

Moon occults Aldebaran during the day (again in October at night)

5      Mercury at largest angle from Sun in morning sky

6      Venus at superior conjunction (crosses behind Sun)

8      Moon to left of Castor and Pollux (Gemini) at 9:30PM

10      Moon between Regulus and Jupiter tonight

13      Sun, Mars, and Saturn fall on a line in space; Martian opposition of Saturn

14      Sunrise earliest in Spring Valley, at 5:23AM

14-15 Moon above Spica and between Mars and Jupiter

17      Moon, Mars, Antares and Saturn make a lozenge, culminating as darkness falls

20      Sunrise/sunset in Spring Valley at 5:24/20:32 (15h8m daylight)

Full Strawberry Moon 7:02AM

Solstice at 6:34PM EDT

23-24 St. John’s Eve/Day, traditional mid-summer

27      Sunset latest in Spring Valley, at 8:33PM

30      Sunrise/sunset in Spring Valley at 5:27/20:33 (15h6m daylight)

Mars stationary to stars, end of retrograde loop, begins normal motion

Star Calendar – May, 2016

Star Calendar

May, 2016

Star Calendar Planets:

Moon is Full three, or sometimes four, times in a season but the names that various cultures have assigned to characterize the circumstances around various full moons of the year generally number 12 – leaving the occasional unnamed one. Similarly the Hebrew luni-solar calendar has 12 months – but needs to insert an inter-calary month about every three years to maintain its relationship to the solar year. In each case the adjustment occurs 7 times in 19 years – the extra full moon is called Blue and the extra Hebrew month is called second Adar. This month’s full Moon coincides with the opposition of Mars – and the latter will shine in the very spot towards which falls the shadow of the Earth – so on the night of the 21-22nd one can easily see just how far the moon is from being eclipsed.

Mercury promises to be visible in broad daylight on the 9th. Inferior conjunction will cut right across the face of the Sun, beginning somewhat after sunrise, midway around 11 and leaving in mid-afternoon. One can observe this with a camera obscura arrangement that projects and enlarges the disk of the sun onto a screen. I might cover a south or SE-facing window and allow a pinhole of light through a piece of aluminum foil to cast onto a sheet of white cardboard. Such a transit of Mercury last occurred ten years ago – but these are far less rare than transits of Venus – which I will never see again.

Venus is lost in morning limelight as she heads backstage for some future showing in evening attire.

Sun is midway from equinox to solstice on the 1st. Astronomically this marks the beginning of Summer, the solstice being regarded as mid-summer. The days are now getting longer much more slowly – by about one minute a day as the month opens and only 30 seconds a day as the month ends.

Mars makes a large retrograde stroke and rises dramatically earlier over the course of this and next month. He breaks the horizon at about 9 PM on the 1st and already at 6:18 by the 31st.  This opposition is the nearest for Mars since the superlative one of ten years ago. But, due to Mar’s high degree of ellipticity, he will continue to draw nearer for another week after opposition, then being twice as near to us as is the Sun (.5AU).

Jupiter finally diminishes perceptibly from its late brilliance but still dominates the evening sky in the south. Mars will match magnitude during its opposition- but rises later and culminates much lower – achieving only the altitude of the Sun at mid-winter.

Saturn is also in a retrograde loop, one much smaller than Mars’, and rises just under an hour later. Saturn is then seen to be about as bright as Arcturus – but shining with a steady light compared to the latter’s yellow-green scintillation. Saturn will reach opposition on June 3rd.

Star Calendar Days:

  1      Sunrise/sunset in Spring Valley at 5:53/19:54 (14h1m daylight)

          First day of cross-quarter-wise summer, Beltane

  6      New Moon 15 hours after perigee, again large spring tides

  8      Moon to right of Betelgeuse and above Aldebaran, WNW around 9:PM

  9      Mercury crosses face of Sun (transit) begin 7:12-max 11:-ending 2:40

          Jupiter stationary to direct motion, ends it’s loop for this year

13      Moon next to Regulus, SW as dark falls

14      Moon next to Jupiter, SSW as dark falls

18      Moon beside Spica, SE as dark falls

21      Full Blue Moon at 17:14 (This season has 4 Full Moons, the 3rd is “Blue”

          Mars rises (in the exact direction of Earth’s shadow) beside the Moon, ESE 8:30PM

          Mercury stationary to direct (leftwards motion against stars)

22      Mars in opposition 7:AM, 14 hours after Full Moon

          Moon rises to left of Saturn, SE at 10:PM

30      Mars is nearest Earth, half as distant as is the Sun

31      Sunrise/sunset in Spring Valley at 5:26/20:22 (14h56m daylight)

Star Calendar – April 2016

Star Calendar

April 2016

Star Calendar Planets:

Moon is very dynamic and has several motions of similar mode. A Frenchman sewed photographs of sequential Full Moons together into an animated GIF that shows very nicely the net effect of the various librations – the nodding and swaying face and changes in proximity in a kind of slow stroboscopic form. The next-to nearest perigee for this year coincides pretty closely to New Moon this month – the waters will respond. Of note; the center of mass of the Moon is well displaced from its geometrical center. This lopsidedness is probably why we see only one side of the Moon – its center of mass prefers to be toward the earth.

Mercury is an evening star all this month. With a good view to just North of West one might find him to the right of a thin Moon around 8:15 PM on the 8th. Thereafter he will be higher until the 18th, then seen below the Pleiades as late as around 9PM.

Venus is now difficult to view in the morning. With a very good East horizon try to look to the left of the Moon on the 4th at 6:10 AM – Venus will next appear some evening in latter July.

Sun is not a point of light – rather a disk of ½ degree or 1/720th the circumference of the sky. Due only to this the Sun is visible above the horizon to slightly more than ½ of the planet at a time. In addition, the medium of air, increasing in density from empty space, bends the visibility of the Sun a further half-degree or so beyond the geometric-tangent horizon, trebling the effect. At any moment, roughly 50.4% of the Earth is in daylight. This has to do with why day and night are not of equal length on the equinox.

Mars approaches headlong this month and brightens dramatically. He does so near Antares (similar color but much dimmer) and Saturn, to his left. Recall that Mars and Saturn were of equal brilliance in mid-February – now look at the difference! Mars’ opposition is coming May 22nd. They are visible, low and southerly, between about 11PM and 5:30AM.

Jupiter appears much the same as last month, repeating a prominent pairing with the Moon on the night of the 17th.

Saturn makes a nice contrast to Mars and will be in its opposition on June 3rd, only 12 days after Mars’.

Star Calendar Days:

  1      Sunrise/sunset in Spring Valley at 6:39/19:22 EDT (12h43m daylight)

  6      Moon and Venus rise together – only with a perfect view east, at 5-5:10AM

  7      New Moon and very-near perigee only 6 ½ hours apart – spring tides

  8      Moon and Mercury set together – only with a perfect view west, at 8-8:30PM

10      Aldebaran emerges from occultation by Moon as they set; West, 8-11PM

12      Moon passes Alhena (foot of Gemini) WSW in evening

14      Moon makes a line with Pollux and Castor (heads of Gemini) SW in evening

16-17 Moon passes Regulus

17      Mars stationary to retrograde, brightening most rapidly now

17-18 Moon and Jupiter make a bright couple all night (like last month)

18      Mercury at largest angle from evening Sun for this appearance

20      Mars and Saturn nearest (no conjunction), visible SW11:30PM to SSW5:30AM

21      Moon setting with Spica WSW at 5:30AM

21-22 Full Sprouting Moon at 1:24 AM

23      Passover begins, the 15th of Nissan

24      Moon, Mars, Saturn & Antares rising together SE at 11:30PM

26      Mars, the brighter, nearest to Antares – of similar color; culminate S at 3:AM

29      Mercury stationary, to retrograde

30      Sunrise/sunset in Spring Valley at 5:55/19:53 (13h58m daylight)

 

1/3 of 2016 has passed; also midway from Spring equinox to summer solstice

 

 

Star Calendar – March 2016

Star Calendar

March 2016

Star Calendar Planets:

Moon makes a less dramatic swing from standing to lying crescent either side of New Moon this year. Firstly the tilt of the lunar path from the ecliptic is currently one that subtracts its obliquity from the equator, secondly, this month’s syzygies fall near the nodes – there are two eclipses this month (neither visible from the U.S.). Still it is worth noting the more upright old Moon before dawn on the 6th/7th and the contrasting higher, reclining, earthshine-glowing young evening Moon on the 9th/10th. The tilt-drama is increasing from a minimum last year, next peaking in 2025.

Mercury is getting brighter but nearer the Sun – so we must imagine him receding and crossing behind the Sun this month. Next month will afford a better evening showing than this has bee, even though his excursion is of a smaller angle.

Venus is now pretty low just before dawn – but bright enough to see yet; beside the Moon on the 7th especially.

Sun is in the sky about 2 ¾ minutes longer each day this month and is high enough at noon to be beneficial on the skin.

Mars and Saturn are night-long beacons as they approach their oppositions. Saturn is nearly as bright (to the left) but watch Mars increase to equal Jupiter’s brilliance by late May. The increase is due to the dramatic approach he makes. As March opens he is farther away than is the Sun, by the 2nd week, equal distant as the Sun, by month’s end, ¾ the Sun’s distance, and at opposition, only half as distant as the Sun.

Jupiter nearest and brightest now, but varies much less than does Mars! He is King of the Night for this month anyway, up from dusk ‘til dawn, and shining far brighter than any other star or planet.

Saturn, Antares, Mars and Moon make a quartet before dawn on the 1st. Saturn is also increasing in brilliance, but, characteristically, very slowly, hardly discernible to the eye during March anyway.

Equinox is an astronomical event that occurs at the moment the center of Sun’s disk crosses the celestial equator. That instant is on the 20th in all of Asia, Europe and Africa, but would be on the 19th in all of the U.S. were NOT the clocks fiddled with for so-called Daylight Savings (sic). So the equinox is on the 20th for Day-lighters in the Eastern time zone, but on the 19th for Central Time and points West.

Star Calendar Dates:

1      Moon between Mars and Saturn, and above Antares; high in S at 6:AM

          Sunrise/sunset in Spring Valley at 6:30/17:48 EST (11h18m daylight)

2      Moon near Saturn in the AM hours

7      Moon near Venus, ESE around 6:AM

8      Jupiter in opposition, nearest and brightest for year, and mid-loop

9-10   Hilal before Easter, (how œcumenical!) Young Grail Moon, West after sunset

10      Perigee one day after syzygy, large-ish spring tide

13      Much of U.S. pushes clocks forward an hour; also Palm Sunday

14      Since Pi=3.14159…, 3/14/16 is a better approxi-Pi-date than last year’s

15      2059 years since Caesar was rendered unto… the Ides

16      Sunrise/sunset in Spring Valley at 7:05/19:05 EDT (12h daylight, = night)

19      Daylight lengthens most rapidly, nearly 3 minutes/day

20      Equinox at 00:30PM, Sun crosses celestial equator

21-22 Moon with Jupiter all night

23      Full Sugaring Moon at 8:01, sets just before entering penumbra of Earth’s shadow

          Mercury passes the backside of the Sun, superior conjunction

25      Saturn turns retrograde, approaches, begins loop for a June opposition

27      Summer Time begins in Europe

          Easter for Western churches, Eastern falls on May 1 (=April 18 Julian)

28      Moon over Mars midnight to dawn

29      Moon over Saturn midnight to dawn

31      Sunrise/sunset in Spring Valley at 6:40/19:21 (12h41m daylight)

Star Calendar – February 2016

Star Calendar

February 2016

Star calendar Planets:

Moon appears on the 1st at Last Quarter and makes a little line segment with Mars and Zubenelgenubi of Libra (for binoculars) for early risers. After a similar highlight of Saturn/Antares on the 3rd will be a fetching scene on the 6th, between about 6:15 and 6:30 in the SE with a thin crescent Moon beside Venus, and a possibly visible Mercury below.

Mercury shines at zero magnitude (as bright as the brightest star of summer, Vega) but is fairly low throughout this excursion into the light of dawn. Greatest elongation coincides with a proximate Moon as mentioned above.

Venus spends February making a graceful, slow departure from her late prominence in the morning scene. By March 1st she will barely peak over the horizon when civil twilight is well underway. We may then wait until some evening in late July for her next showing.

Sun makes a circuit through the stars in about (!) 365.24219 days. The Julian leap-day-every-four-years scheme still leaves a sizable error of 3days 3hours per century. The Gregorian refinement, omitting leap-days on the centuries excepting those divisible by 400, leaves an error of 44minutes 38seconds per century – which falls much nearer the noise floor of the long-term variability of the length of day.

Mars is highlighted by the Moon at both the beginning and end of this month and is positioned for optimal viewing, high in the South, before dawn. He now moves steadily away from Zubenelgenubi and toward his namesake (anti-nym?) Antares. Although “Antares” means “the equal of Mars”, in reference to their similar color, actual encounters of Mars and Antares vary widely in their relative brightness. This time Mars will become markedly the brighter as they draw nearer. We can look forward to an April 25th clustering of Moon, Mars, Saturn and Antares.

Jupiter is now an all-night feature, noticeably retrograde, and approaches the point in the sky opposite the Sun – which is currently near Regulus and moving toward Jupiter one degree per day. When they are closest we call the planet in opposition; it is then nearest Earth, brightest, and at the mid-point of its backward motion.

Saturn lies bright between the stars Sabik, of Ophiuchus, and Antares of Scorpio. Saturn burns at a steady .5 magnitude this month while Mars brightens from .8 (dimmer) to .4 (brighter) during this month – so the pair trade places in planetary dominance during this month. Remember that in the magnitude scale less-is-more.

Caveat Lector! Sorry about the 10-minute-too-late error for the occultation in January, I don’t know how that happened. As always, “Reader Beware!”

Star Calendar Days:

1      Moon, Mars, Zubenelgenubi in a tight little line; S 5:-6:AM

          Sunrise/sunset in Spring Valley at 7:07/17:12 (10h5m daylight)

2      Traditional mid-winter day, Candlemas/Groundhog Day

3      Moon above Saturn, Antares; SSE 5:-6:AM

6      Moon, Venus, Mercury in a small triangle; low SE at 6:AM

          Mercury at greatest angle from Sun, 26 degrees, and as bright as Vega

7      Mars is 90 degrees from Sun (quadrature), analogous to Last Quarter Moon

11      Mean-time clocks furthest ahead of Sun for the year, ET= -14 ¼ minutes

13      Venus and Mercury most proximate for this appearance; low ESE 6:AM

15      Moon occults the nose of the Bull after sunset (not readily observable)

22      Moon sets as near to Earth’s shadow as is Aldebaran; W at 5:30 AM

          Full Snow Moon at 13:20 (1:20PM EST) passing just beneath Earth’s shadow

23      Moon rises beside Jupiter; E 7:PM

29      Moon above Mars; S at 5:30AM

          Sunrise/sunset in Spring Valley at 6:31/17:47 (11h16m daylight)

Orion spits in the eye of the Bull tonight

Atmospheric conditions look favorable to watch the gibbous Moon occult Aldebaran tonight – very shortly after 9:30 PM in the S-SW.

After dusk the Moon will be culminating (south and highest for the night) to the right of the “>” of Taurus’ face; further to the left Orion, nearly standing straight up.

By around 9:PM Orion will be culminating and one will notice that the Moon is much nearer the bright red star Aldebaran, the lower-leftmost star of the five making up the “>” arranged about the Moon. It is likely that the Moon will wash out these stars to the eye – but low power binoculars should reveal them.

Shortly after 9:30 the dark edge of the gibbous Moon will cover the red eye of the Bull.

Re-emergence should take place almost an hour later, lower in the WSW –  more difficult to witness because it will be popping out the bright lower edge of the Moon then.

We are in the midst of a season for occultations by the Moon – but I find it rare to actually SEE one – due to a number of encumbrances that can occur (clouds, too low, ridiculous hour, forget, etc.) – hence this bulletin.

Paul

Star Calendar – January 2016

Star Calendar

January 2016

Star Calendar Planets:

Moon rises on the autumnal equinox point and beneath Jupiter as the New Year opens. On the 7th it accompanies Venus and Saturn in morning twilight in the ESE and then begins another week or so of moonless dark nights. On the evening of the 19th watch the Moon, high in the south, approach and then blot out Aldebaran – that expected to occur at 9:43PM.

Mercury stands (against the stars) on both sides of the Sun this month. He is stationary on the 5th, on the evening side of the Sun, in Capricorn; crosses the nearside of the Sun on the 14th, and stands again on the morning side of the Sun on the 25th. This appearance is rather poor – but the dates give a sense of how quickly Mercury can change position.

Venus continues to be the dominant “star of the east”. On Three King’s Day morning will occur a lovely morning group of crescent Moon, Venus and approaching Saturn; and the subsequent days too – until on the 10th she sinks below Saturn and begins in earnest to fall into to the morning glow.

Sun is nearest us for the year at this time. The relationship of the timing of the proximity cycle of the Sun (apsides) to the seasons is a strong component of the cycle of glaciation; is one that changes very slowly too. All of modern humanity’s historical records fall within the current warm cycle. Apsides proceed to the same conditions in about 111,000 years while the seasons are retrograde in 25,770 years. Other long cycles also abound.

Mars is culminating (south and highest) between 6 and 6:30 AM these days. He abandons the virgin on the 17th and recovers his balance in the scales. Mars is at 1st magnitude, slightly brighter than Spica to his right. He approaches 3rd magnitude (much dimmer) Zuben Elgenubi this month and will arrive, escorted by the Moon, on Feb. 1st.

Jupiter begins his loop this month, wandering back under the belly of Leo for an opposition in early March.

Saturn is now a definite morning presence, shining as brightly as Arcturus in the morning sky. As the year opens Saturn will be only half as high as Venus at 6:30 AM, but will ascend each morning as Venus slowly falls. The pair swap ascendency on the 9th and by the 31st Saturn will be prominent in the SSE between Antares and Sabik – though one might have to look a little earlier due to earlier sunrise!

Quadrantids are from the upper part of Bootes and their radiant is circumpolar. They may peak early this year so spending the night of 3rd-4th on a cot with feet facing north may reward.

Star Calendar Days:

1      Sunrise/sunset in Spring Valley at 7:21/16:38 (9h17m daylight)

2      Sun is nearest for the year (perihelion), at .9833 of average distance

3      Martian solstice, summer for northern hemisphere

          Moon above Mars and Spica, SSE at 6-6:30AM

4      Quadrantid meteors early AM, from high East –

          – while looking, find Comet Catalina above Arcturus (with binoculars?)

5      Latest sunrise for the year, at 7:22 in Spring Valley

          Mercury stationary to retrograde

6      Moon above Venus and Saturn in morning twilight

7      Moon below Venus and Saturn, (red Antares to the right)

          Julian December 25, Orthodox Christmas

8      Jupiter is stationary, begins retrograde loop

9      Venus and Saturn very near, morning twilight in east

14      Julian/Roman New Year, begins 2769 AUC

          Mercury at inferior conjunction, crosses nearside of Sun

19      Moon occults Aldebaran, SSW at about 9:43PM

23      Full Wolf Moon at 8:46PM

25      Mercury stationary to direct (normal) motion

          Moon rises beside Regulus, east at 8:PM

28      Moon rises below Jupiter, east at 10:PM

30      Moon above Spica, SSW at 6:AM

31      Sunrise/sunset in Spring Valley at 7:08/17:12 (10h4m daylight)

Star Calendar – December 2015

Star Calendar

December 2015

Star Calendar Planets:

MOON rises as a waning crescent just above Venus at 6:AM on the 7th. Watch the pair through the day using the crescent Moon to find Venus very close by the convex side of the Moon. After having lunch, go watch Venus disappear behind the crescent, SE at about 12:40PM. Just over an hour later find a good view to the WSW and stare at the Moon again to catch Venus wink back from behind the invisible (gibbous dark part) side. Reappearance should occur at 1:50PM – but look early as that might not be precise. Binoculars are helpful, but this occultation should be visible without them. The season of New Moon nearest winter solstice gives us the darkest days of the year – contrasted by the season of the “Long-Night” Full moon – a kind of echo of summer during which it does not get dark for several days, Christmas Midnight will be like a soft Summer Noon.

MERCURY makes a fair evening appearance this month, culminating just after Christmas. Mercury will be the brightest object in the SW in evening twilight (excepting airplanes and such) and will not twinkle (or scintillate) as low stars tend to.

VENUS passes Spica on the 1st and pulls away from pursuing Mars, hides behind the Moon on the 7th (see above) then crosses into the Scales on the 11th. She then serves to draw our attention to the reappearance of Saturn sometime during the mornings approaching Christmas. We can then look forward to a stunning grouping of Venus, Saturn, a crescent Moon and Mars’ nemesis Antares on the morning of Epiphany.

SUN is noticeably a super-minority presence now; it’s down twice as long as it’s up. It stands, astronomically, in the Teapot for solstice – which is fairly near the direction of the center of the Milky Way.

MARS reaches Spica on Christmas – on which morning we will see a lay of planets, from SE to S: Saturn, Venus, Mars/Spica, Jupiter; and beyond in the SW, Regulus. The line of the ecliptic is hence easily seen!

JUPITER is nearly stationary this month and tests the extremity of Leo in barely discernable direct motion. He will go retrograde at Epiphany.

SATURN enters the morning scene near Antares sometime mid-month. With a decent view to the SE the two should be visible Christmas morning, and a definite presence by New Year’s morning; 6:30 is a good time to look.

GEMINIDS are quite reliable meteors and find very good circumstances (no moonlight) this year for a good showing. Lie down in a sleeping bag somewhere with feet toward the SE and look up. It’s a good night for catnapping.

Star Calendar Days:

1 Sunrise/sunset in Spring Valley at 7:02/16:28 (9h26m daylight)
3-4 LQ Moonrise/set in Spring Valley at 23:44/12:29 (12h45m moonup)
7 Moon rises just above Venus, SE at 6AM, Spica and Mars above them
Moon occults Venus shortly after 12:40PM, re-emerges around 1:50PM
8 Sunrise at 7:09; latest for 2015
This week has the most (celestially) dark skies for the year
11 NM Moonrise/set in Spring Valley at 07:01/17:07 (10h 6m moonup)
13-14 Geminid meteors – in propitious circumstances!
18-19 FQ Moonrise/set I Spring Valley at 12:04/00:28 (12h24m moonup)
21 Sunrise/sunset in Spring Valley at 7:18/16:31 (9h13m daylight)
Solstice at 23:48, longest night of the year
22 Mars passes to left of Spica, in SSE at 6AM
Sky is lit by Sun or Moon almost continuously for the following week
23 Moon rises beneath Aldebaran, East at 5:PM
25 Oh, what a beautiful morning! (see MARS above)
FM Moonrise/set in Spring Valley at 17:14/07:04 (13h50m moonup)
28 Mercury highest in evening sky for this appearance
31 Sunrise/sunset in Spring Valley at 7:21/16:37 (9h16m daylight)
Moon rises beneath Jupiter just before the New Year opens, east.

Star Calendar – November 2015

Star Calendar

November 2015

Star Calendar Planets:

Moon sweeps the foot of Gemini on the first evening of November, then wends its waning way with early morning visitations to Regulus, Jupiter, Venus/Mars and Spica during the subsequent week. On the 12th The Moon serves as an aid to our last view of Saturn for a month or so – but only for those with a clear view to the WSW. The 26th provides an opportunity to see an occultation – of Aldebaran – but that will be just hours after Full Moon – so Aldebaran may not compete well. A daytime occultation with a crescent Moon is coming in December…

Mercury spends this month crossing the far side of the Sun.

Venus swaps places with Mars as the pair cross into Virgo on the 2nd. She then scoots for the protection of ascending Spica, reaching her by the end of the month.

Sun has again been very active in unusual ways, and has even produced aurora visible in daylight.

Mars does a turn with Venus and then ascends as Venus descends. Mars will not meet Spica until Christmas.

Jupiter also heads for Virgo but slows to a crawl, stopping just shy of the boundary to Virgo after Christmas to begin his loop in Leo early next year. Jupiter will not step into Virgo until next August.

Saturn will be overtaken by the Sun on the 30th and will visible again some morning in mid-December.

Star Calendar Dates:

1      Daylight Time ends; 2AM=1AM Standard Time

          Moon near foot of Gemini (Alhena) in SW before sunrise

          Sunrise/sunset in Spring Valley at 6:27/16:52 EST (10h25m daylight)

1-2     Moon passes through the feet of Gemini

2-3     Venus falls beneath Mars just as the pair cross into Virgo; predawn ESE

3      Clocks furthest ahead of Sun for the year (Equation of Time maximal)

5      Moon below Regulus, SE predawn

6      Moon beside Jupiter, SE predawn

7      Moon beside Venus/Mars, SE predawn

          Calendrical midpoint between equinox and solstice

9      Moon near Spica, ESE predawn

10      314th day; temporal circumference of circle with diameter of April 10 (day 100:-)

11      Martinmas, traditional cross-quarter day (see the 7th)

12      Moon (beside Saturn; last glimpse ‘til Dec.) 5:15 PM if very good WSW view!

17      Mercury crosses far side of Sun (Superior conjunction)

18      Leonid meteors peak – face east in the early morning

25      Full Beaver Moon 5:44PM

26      Just-Full Moon occults Aldebaran, around 5:45AM in west (use binoculars)

29      Venus passes Spica, predawn in SE

30      Sunrise/sunset in Spring Valley at 7:01/16:29 EST (9h28m daylight)

About the Recent Lunar Eclipse

By the Dark of the Moon …

… indeed the last eclipse was darker than most — but not as dark as I had hoped for.

From Spaceweather.com:

“LUNAR ECLIPSE DETECTS GLOBAL COOLING (BUT ONLY A LITTLE): On Sept. 27th, people on five continents watched the Moon pass through the shadow of our planet. Most agreed that the lunar eclipse was darker than usual. Little did they know, they were witnessing a sign of global cooling. But only a little.


Above: “The eclipse was truly dark,” says photographer Giuseppe Petricca of Pisa, Italy

Atmospheric scientist Richard Keen of the University of Colorado explains: “Lunar eclipses tell us a lot about the transparency of Earth’s atmosphere. When the stratosphere is clogged with volcanic ash and other aerosols, lunar eclipses tend to be dark red. On the other hand, when the stratosphere is relatively clear, lunar eclipses are bright orange.”

This is important because the stratosphere affects climate; a clear stratosphere ‘lets the sunshine in’ to warm the Earth below. At a 2008 SORCE conference Keen reported that “The lunar eclipse record indicates a clear stratosphere over the past decade, and that this has contributed about 0.2 degrees to recent warming.”

The eclipse of Sept. 27, 2015, however, was not as bright as recent eclipses. Trained observers in 7 countries estimated that the eclipse was about 0.4 magnitude dimmer than expected, a brightness reduction of about 33 percent.

What happened? “There is a layer of volcanic aerosols in the lower stratosphere,” says Steve Albers of NOAA. “It comes from Chile’s Calbuco volcano, which erupted in April 2015. Six months later, we are still seeing the effects of this material on sunsets in both hemispheres–and it appears to have affected the eclipse as well.”

Volcanic dust in the stratosphere tends to reflect sunlight, thus cooling the Earth below. “In terms of climate, Calbuco’s optical thickness of 0.01 corresponds to a ‘climate forcing’ of 0.2 Watts/m2, or a global cooling of 0.04 degrees C,” says Keen, who emphasizes that this is a very small amount of cooling. For comparison, the eruption of Pinatubo in 1991 produced 0.6 C of cooling and rare July snows at Keen’s mountain home in Colorado.

“I do not anticipate a ‘year without a summer’ from this one!” he says. “It will probably be completely overwhelmed by the warming effects of El Nino now under way in the Pacific.”

This lunar eclipse has allowed Keen measure the smallest amount of volcanic exhaust, and the smallest amount of resultant “global cooling” of all his measurements to date. And that is saying something considering that he has been monitoring lunar eclipses for decades.

“This is indeed the smallest volcanic eruption I’ve ever detected,” says Keen. “It gives me a better idea of the detection capabilities of the system (eclipses plus human observers), so when I go back into the 1800s I can hope to find similarly smallish eruptions in the historical record.”

Paul Davis